For the past 100 years, scientific look in the united states (US) keeps been through a traditional epidemiologic change, step 1 on the interest moving forward of public health issues regarding teens infectious disease, mineral deficiencies and epidemics so you can noncommunicable problems-also heart disease (CVD), blood circulation pressure, diabetic issues mellitus, and you may persistent kidney state (CKD). The issue is enormous: during 2009–2010, such, 23.1% out of mature Us americans had prehypertension, when you find yourself an additional 31.5% got catholicmatch ekÅŸi blood pressure level. dos Rates estimated by the Western Heart Connection (AHA) put the head and secondary will set you back off blood pressure within more $93.5 mil a-year. 3
Diet sodium and you can/or potassium might be reviewed possibly of the weightloss recall, dimensions of weight loss intake and you can/otherwise enhance usage inside an intervention, or by research research off urinary sodium and you will potassium since the both song closely with fat reduction intakes
Population studies have demonstrated an association between dietary sodium chloride (termed salt in this review) as well as dietary potassium, and blood pressure (BP). 4–9 Along with the rising prevalence of hypertension and CVD, non-pharmacological dietary guidelines designed to promote the health of the public have therefore been instituted. 10 While these programs have an impact, most Americans consume well above the minimum daily requirement for dietary salt and further have inadequate potassium intake. To emphasize the excess salt in the American diet, the US Department of Health and Human Services/US Department of Agriculture (US DHHS/USDA) 2010 Dietary Guidelines advise Americans to reduce daily sodium intake to <2300 mg/d per person, with an even lower goal of 1500 mg/d for specific subpopulations; while the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended an age-dependent targeted sodium intake of 1000–1500 mg/day and established a Tolerable Upper Level of Intake (UL) from 1500–2300 mg/day. 11 Between 2003–2008, the median daily sodium intake excluding table salt was 3371 mg (IQR: 2794, 4029) and median potassium consumption was 2631 mg (IQR: 2164 mg, 3161 mg) among US adults >20 years of age; 99.4% of US adults consumed >1500 mg of sodium daily and 90.7% consumed >2300 mg daily. 12 Recent high-profile publications, however, have challenged these guidelines. For this reason, this study considered the evidence that the level of dietary salt and potassium intake affects population BP, CVD, and mortality. Specifically, the authors examined the scientific rationale for population-wide recommendations to increase dietary potassium while reducing salt intake, the strength of available evidence, and offer recommendations for stakeholders to consider.
Steps and Proof Base
Studies in this review include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) linking dietary salt and potassium intakes to subsequent morbidity and mortality which determine the health outcomes of reducing salt intake and/or increasing potassium intakes by diet or supplementation. The following databases (from ined: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Pubmed and Quertle), EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Turning Research into Practice (TRIP) database, EBSCOhost, Scopus, and . Consideration was given to variations in terms used and spelling of terms so that studies were not overlooked and took the general form: (“dietary salt” or “dietary sodium” or (synonyms)) and (“dietary potassium” or (synonyms)) and (“blood pressure” or “hypertension” or “vascular disease” or “heart disease” or “chronic kidney disease” or “stroke” or “mortality” or (synonyms)). Studies were excluded if 1) the paper was an observational or ecological study, a review, or editorial/commentary; 2) the language was not English; 3) the participant total was <20; or 4) the outcome of the trial did not include systolic and diastolic BP, age, CKD, markers and indices of vascular function, CVD and CVD-related hospital admissions, or mortality. Studies that examined outcomes in the setting of heart failure were also excluded.
Studies need include a review out of weight-loss sodium and you will/otherwise fat reduction potassium; and will cover players acquiring a nutritional input one limited sodium, one out of that the input is actually pointers to attenuate salt consumption, and/or the one that enhanced dieting potassium and you will/or in it potassium supplementation.